Do you feel like you don’t belong to any political party? here’s why
The idea that Americans are polarized gives the impression that there are only two sides in politics – Liberal and Conservative, Democrat and Republican.
But Americans are much more complicated politically, as a new typology from the Pew Research Center shows in a study that gives a clearer picture of the full spectrum of American political opinion.
Americans are divided not only by party, but also by in them, enough for Pew to ideologically classify Americans into nine distinct categories (one more than in his last typology four years ago, with decidedly different contours).
Clear lines emerge when it comes to race, inequality and what the government should be doing about it. There are also starkly different views on the role of government as a whole, economic policy, immigration, religion, the position of the United States in the world, and – for Republican-leaning groups – the former. President Donald Trump.
Plus, although polls have found broad support for a third outside of the main two, the study shows that there is no magic medium. In fact, the study finds that the three groups with the most self-identified independents “have very little in common politically”.
There are also clear implications for oversight of Congress. While there has been a lot of attention on the Democratic divisions between the progressive and moderate wings in Congress, the study finds that there is more division among Republican groups on these issues. But where Republicans have an advantage is having more of a sense of urgency about who is in charge in Washington. Stronger Republican groups more than strongest Democrats think next year’s midterms “really matter.”
The typology was created from more than 10,000 survey interviews over an 11-day period last July. A typical national survey has around 1,000 respondents. This is the eighth typology that Pew has created since 1987.
Here’s a look at Pew’s nine categories (to see where you rank you can take the Pew quiz here):
Conservators of Faith and Flag (10% of the public)
Committed curators (7%)
Populist law (11%)
Ambivalent right (12%)
Stressed Sideliners (15%)
Left exterior (ten%)
democratic pillars (16%)
Establishment liberals (13%)
Progressive left (6%)
Republican-leaning groups largely believe that government does too much, that everyone has the capacity to succeed, the obstacles that once kept women and non-whites from advancing are now gone, whites generally don’t benefit no societal advantages over blacks, that political correctness is a major issue, and that military might is key to keeping the United States a superpower.
Two-thirds also believe the Republican Party should not accept elected officials who have openly criticized Trump.
However, they are divided on economic, social and foreign policy. Economically, there are divisions over whether companies are making a good amount of profit and whether taxes should be raised on the rich. They also don’t quite agree on what is most important – the expansion of oil, coal and natural gas or the development of alternative energy supplies.
On social issues, they differ over whether same-sex marriage or abortion should be legal, whether government policies should reflect religious beliefs, and even whether they feel uncomfortable about it. ” hearing people speak a language other than English in public places. There are also differences over whether electoral changes that make it easier to vote would make elections less secure.
On foreign affairs, some believe that the United States should take into account the interests of its allies; Others don’t.
Conservators of Faith and Flag
- 23% of Republicans and Independents with a Republican tendency
- bias the older ones from the Republican leaning groups
- deeply conservative on almost all issues
- religious and want Christianity to be at the center of public life
- very politically engaged; nearly 9 in 10 think who controls Congress after next year’s mid-terms ‘really matters’ – highest of any group
- overwhelmingly white and Christian
- among Trump’s strongest supporters – most believe Trump definitely or probably won the 2020 election
- about 4 in 5 say too much attention was paid to the January 6 uprising
- only 15% of Republicans and Independents with a Republican tendency
- highly educated, loyal and very politically active Republicans; almost 8 in 10 think 2022 election results ‘really matter’
- want limited government
- less restrictive on immigration than the other two GOP trend groups
- more “globalist” – in other words, they think US involvement with the world and with its allies should be a priority
- less enthusiastic about Trump, but generally big fans of former President Ronald Reagan
- 23% of Republicans and Independents with a Republican tendency
- among the least likely to have a college degree and among the most likely to live in rural areas
- immigration hardliners, even more so than Faith and Flag conservatives
- very critical of the American economic system; a majority believe that “the country’s economic system unfairly favors powerful interests, that companies in this country are making too much profit, and that taxes on household income over $ 400,000 should be increased.”
- strong supporters of Trump; 4 in 5 would like him to remain a prominent political figure, and almost 6 in 10 would like him to run again
- about 8 in 10 people think the 2022 election results ‘really matter’
- 18% of Republicans and Independents with a Republican tendency
- the youngest and among the least religious and politically active of the Republican-leaning groups
- most do not identify as ‘conservative’ politically, but are economically conservative, on race issues and in that they prefer a smaller government
- more moderate than other Republicans on immigration, abortion, same-sex marriage and the legalization of marijuana
- lean towards the GOP but don’t fall in love with it; nearly two-thirds would like Trump not to remain a national figure and, in fact, one-quarter identify with Democrats and Democrat-leaning independents
- the only GOP-oriented group to say that President Biden definitely or possibly rightfully received the most votes in the 2020 election, and only about 4 in 10 think the 2022 election results ‘really matter’
- 15% of Republicans and Independents with a Republican tendency and 13% of Democrats and Independents with a Democratic tendency
- financially stressed and tend to lean to the left economically and socially conservative
- the group that Hispanic Republicans are most likely to belong to
- largely disengaged from politics; only about 4 in 10 people voted in 2020, and less than half think the 2022 election results ‘really matter’
While the Democratic-leaning groups generally agree on many issues and say there are issues of race and economic inequality, there is a gap in intensity as to what needs to be done about these issues. problems and how radical the solutions must be.
Pew notes that in past typologies he found loopholes among Democratic groups on social issues like abortion, same-sex marriage and the legalization of marijuana, but these no longer exist. Instead, now the divisions are on How? ‘Or’ What liberal the party should be.
These Democratic-leaning groups believe in a strong federal government, which should do more to solve the problems. They also agree that the economic system unfairly favors the powerful and that taxes on big business and corporations should be raised, along with the minimum wage (to $ 15 an hour).
They believe that more needs to be done to achieve racial equality, that non-whites face at least some discrimination, that significant barriers remain for women to progress, and that the vote is a fundamental right and not should not be restricted. When it comes to major foreign policy decisions, they agree that the allies should be considered.
Cracks exist when it comes to US military might and, to a lesser extent, social and criminal justice, as well as immigration.
- 12% of Democrats and independent Democrats
- young and highly educated
- 4 out of 5 say they are “liberal”, 42% of whom say they are “very liberal”
- the largest Democratic group to say they supported Sen. Bernie Sanders or Sen. Elizabeth Warren in the Democratic primaries (although members of that group fought heavily for Biden in the general election against Trump)
- very politically engaged; just over 8 in 10 think 2022 election results ‘really matter’
- more than two thirds white
- extremely liberal political positions
- 23% of democratic groups
- very politically engaged; 77% say 2022 election results ‘really matter’
- support for the Democratic Party and its leaders
- liberal spirit, but prefer more measured approaches
- when it comes to race they say they recognize the ills of society and that more needs to be done to correct them, but instead of global change they say it should come from laws and institutions existing
- more likely to support compromise and more welcoming to those who agree with Republicans on certain things
- generally optimistic about politics and country
- 28% of democratic-leaning groups, making them the largest of the democratic-leaning groups
- older, less likely to have a college degree than other Democratic groups
- most identify as moderate
- Black Democrats are concentrated in this group, although the group is the most racially and ethnically diverse of all the groups.
- have liberal views on race, economics and the social safety net, but are more conservative on immigration and crime and are mostly pro-military
- 73% say 2022 election results ‘really matter’
- 16% of Democrats and Democratic-leaning groups
- the youngest of the groups that lean Democrat
- liberal, especially on issues of race, immigration and climate
- are less politically active than other democratic groups, are less reliable voters, are more likely to identify as independent; when they vote, they massively break the democrats
- not excited about the Democratic or Republican parties – or the country as a whole, for that matter
- most say other countries are better than the US, and almost 9 in 10 think there are no candidates who represent their point of view
- only about half say 2022 election results ‘really matter’
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